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GRAMMAR NOTES: DIRECT AND INDIRECT STYLE

 
LSEG: direct to indirect style




“Direct and indirect style” (also improperly though commonly named “direct and indirect speech”) are two particular methods of reproducing in writing someone’s words. In direct style, the words are reproduced exactly using quotes; in indirect style, however, someone’s words and actions need to be translated/ transformed into a particular style of “a third person narration”.
LSEG4: DIRECT AND INDIRECT STYLE


There are many rules of style to follow when we transmit messages in writing (and orally) but, unfortunately, LSEG4 cannot cover them all. In order to explain “the style of writing” appropriately, it would take an entire book just like LSEG4—possibly, even thicker.

On the other hand, the focus in LSEG4 is only on a few grammatical aspects which represent fundamental knowledge about “the style of writing”. Once properly assimilated the basic (though mandatory) information presented IN LSEG4, the readers could look for other specialty books dedicated to enhancing the literary style of writing—this is, naturally, if the readers need to do that.
LSEG4: DIRECT AND INDIRECT STYLE




Direct style is relatively easy to implement: the words are reproduced exactly using quotes. Indirect style, on the other hand, requires a few particular “transformations” in order to reproduce the words and the actions as accurately and consistently as possible.
LSEG4: DIRECT AND INDIRECT STYLE


In indirect style, the "interrogative sentence" becomes a subordinate clause connected to main clause via the conjunctions “if” or “whether”—this is, only when the direct style clause does not start with an interrogative word. In addition, the verb “to ask” is replaced by explicit forms in indirect style: “to inquire”, “to wonder”, “wanted to know” etc. Note that the auxiliary verb “to do” is omitted in indirect style interrogations.
LSEG4: DIRECT AND INDIRECT STYLE





If the sentence is “emphatic” in direct style, therefore loaded with strong emotional content, in indirect style the declarative verb is replaced with words/ expressions/clauses that explain the emphatic content as detailed as necessary.

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