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LSEG4
ENGLISH GRAMMAR
DIRECT/INDIRECT STYLE
 
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GRAMMAR NOTES: DIRECT AND INDIRECT STYLE

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NOTE
Amazingly, this "Direct/Indirect Style" page is second only to "Sentence Syntax", among the Grammar Notes pages we present. Consequently, we need to enhance it . . . a little bit. Now, in order to control the "(literary) manner of expression", the readers should master:

1. grammar [GRAMMAR = MORPHOLOGY + SENTENCE SYNTAX + COMPLEX SENTENCE SYNTAX]--this is very important since nothing works without a good command of grammar;
2. punctuation [PUNCTUATION]--note that grammar itself is controlled using a handful of punctuation rules;
3. the few simple grammatical techniques of style [DIRECT/INDIRECT STYLE], as they are presented in LSEG4;
4. next comes your personal ability of structuring logically your thoughts/ideas--and our grammar books should help a lot with this one too [LOGIC];
5. lastly, it is a professional capacity (acquired after years of practice) of enhancing your personal manner of expression  [PERSONAL TALENT]--which is, exactly, your personal literary style.

Consider the following formula:

CLEAR (LITERARY) MANNER OF EXPRESSION = MORPHOLOGY + SENTENCE SYNTAX + COMPLEX SENTENCE SYNTAX + PUNCTUATION + LOGIC (+ PERSONAL TALENT)

Note that the above formula is fairly complex; this means, if one single component/subcomponent is missing, the entire assembly (as the "manner of expression") becomes a (literary) mess. [The "literary" component could be missing in non-fictional documents.] Consequently, LSEG4 and L4EW have been specifically designed to help you master/control the entire formula in red above.

Do not get scared of the complexity, and of the amount of study work involved. ANYTHING can be easily assimilated when it is explained logically, in simple words, and using a clear definite structure/pattern. Of course, this may take some time, though important are only the results. We do have the means; the rest is up to you.


LSEG: direct to indirect style



Direct and indirect style” (also improperly though commonly named “direct and indirect speech”) are two particular methods of reproducing in writing someone’s words. In direct style, the words are reproduced exactly using quotes; in indirect style, however, someone’s words and actions need to be translated/transformed into a particular style of “a third person narration”.
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LSEG4: DIRECT AND INDIRECT STYLE





The focus in LSEG4 is on a few grammatical aspects which represent the fundamental knowledge about “the style of writing”. Once properly assimilated the basic (though mandatory) information presented in LSEG4, the readers could look for other specialty books dedicated to enhancing the literary style of writing—this is, naturally, if the readers need to do that.

LSEG4: DIRECT AND INDIRECT STYLE



Direct style is relatively easy to implement: the words are reproduced exactly using quotes. Indirect style, on the other hand, requires a few particular “transformations” in order to reproduce the words and the actions as accurately and consistently as possible.

LSEG4: DIRECT AND INDIRECT STYLE


In indirect style, the "interrogative sentence" becomes a subordinate clause connected to main clause via the conjunctions “if” or “whether”—this is, only when the direct style clause does not start with an interrogative word. In addition, the verb “to ask” is replaced by explicit forms in indirect style: “to inquire”, “to wonder”, “wanted to know” etc. Note that the auxiliary verb “to do” is omitted in indirect style interrogations.
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LSEG4: DIRECT AND INDIRECT STYLE





If the sentence is “emphatic” in direct style, therefore loaded with strong emotional content, in indirect style the declarative verb is replaced with words/ expressions/clauses that explain the emphatic content as detailed as necessary.


LSEG 4TH EDITION
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A complete grammatical reference, very easy to learn: Logically Structured English Grammar 4—as theory plus exercises!

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