Corollary Theorems: SENTENCE SYNTAX


English Grammar Notes #12:



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(fragment from LSEG Definition S1)

is the branch of grammar working with "syntactic elements". Syntax defines relational/functional rules governing the logic structures of syntactic elements.
"Syntactic elements" are words grouped on "interdependent relational functionality". Syntactic elements exist only within the sentence structure; outside the logic, sentence structure, words are studied as morphologic sentence elements.

Syntax has two parts:
A. sentence syntax
B. complex sentence syntax

"Sentence syntax" analyses relational functionality developed between syntactic elements within the logic sentence-frame.

The structure employed to present sentence syntax--in its most general form--in this page is:
1. Syntactic Elements
2. Subject
3. Predicate
4. Subject-Predicate  Agreement
5. Attributes
6. Objects
7. Adverbials

These Grammar Notes are not sufficient to understand the topics presented--far from that. For accurate and detailed information we recommend LOGICALLY STRUCTURED ENGLISH GRAMMAR.

Sentence SyntaxSpoken and written languages are advanced forms of communications which people employ to exchange ideas. Because one language is used by many people, it needs to be structured logically, based on structural form of the words, and on their relational functionality. Structural form of the words is studied by morphology; relational functionality of the words is analyzed using syntax.

Within the sentence structure, syntactic elements are grouped according to their relational functionality into the following grammatical categories:
1. subject
2. predicate
3. attribute
4. object
5. adverbial

In order to facilitate syntactic analysis, sentences are commonly re-grouped into five major syntactic categories:
1. affirmations, or declarations;
2. negations;
3. interrogations (including negative interrogations);
4. conditional complex sentences
5. comparative complex sentences

Fragment from LSEG: syntactic elements.

LSEG: syntactic elements

Definition (fragment from LSEG Definition S1.2)
"Subject" is syntactical name marking/identifying morphological sentence element in nominative which executes (or suffers in a few instances) the action/state expressed by the predicate-verb ...

Considering their form, subjects are:
1. simple
2. compound
3. double

Morphologically, simple subject is a noun, or a noun-equivalent. Further, a noun-equivalent may be:
1. a pronoun
2. an adjective
3. a numeral
4. a gerund verb
5. a past participle verb
6. an infinitive verb
7. any sentence element working as an equivalent-noun

Considering its meaning, the subject can be:
A. grammatical subject: the sentence element in nominative case;
B. logic subject: the true subject executing the action/state of the verb; in most instances it is a construction in accusative case.

Fragment from LSEG: using simple subject.
LSEG: using simple subjects

Definition (fragment from LSEG Definition S1.3.0.1)
"Predicate" is syntactical name marking/identifying the morphologic verb used to express the action/state of the subject ...

According to its structure, the predicate in a sentence takes the following forms:
A. verbal predicate, having a complete/incomplete meaning;
B. nominal predicate--has a complex structure.

Further, verbal predicate can be:
A1. a complete predication verb
A2. an incomplete prediction verb

Nominal predicate has two parts:
B1. a copulative/linking verb named "copula";
B2. a predicative complement

Predicate complement may be expressed using one of the following morphologic sentence elements:
1. a noun
2. a pronoun
3. an adjective
4. a numeral
5. an adverb
6. an interrogative pronoun or adjective
7. an infinitive verb
8. a gerund verb
9. a participle verb
10. a prepositional phrase

Fragment from LSEG: using predicate complements.
LSEG: using predicate complements

In some grammar books dedicated to promoting the "modified" English grammar, are presented "diagrams" of type SVCA (plus many other forms). Note that "S" stands for subject, "V" means verb, "C" is complement, and "A" marks an adverbial. That is a gross grammatical error.

There is no "verb" near any "subject", dear readers. In sentence syntax there are only subjects, predicates, attributes, objects, and adverbials: this is all. Nouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, and so on exist only in morphology; they do not exist in sentence syntax. In addition, note that "complements" ARE NOT syntactical elements; "complements" are just subcategories/variations of the main syntactic elements.

Anyway, in the "modified" English grammar, sentence syntax, morphology, and complex sentence syntax are all entangled together in a strange, absurdly illogical, mess.

The subject
--a morphologic noun in most instances--and the predicate have to agree in number in order to build meaningful grammatical constructions. However, nouns may have singular form and plural meaning, or vice-versa.

Fragment from LSEG Table S1.4.4: compound subject-predicate agreement.
LSEG: compound subject-predicate agreement

Definition (fragment from LSEG Definition S1.5)
“Attribute” is syntactical element used to present particular characteristics of the
determined syntactic element (a morphologic noun, in most instances). The attribute is
in genitive case, or it takes the case of the determined syntactic element . . ."

Attributes “describe” or “explain” their determined syntactic elements. “Descriptive
attributes” are optional (could be missing, and they can be isolated/marked by commas),
while “explicative attributes” are mandatory/essential to the meaning (therefore, they
are never isolated by commas)


Attributes are not mentioned in the "modified" English grammar, in their childish sentence syntax, although they do "describe" subject-complements and object-complements as being "syntactic elements"! Further, in their underdeveloped complex sentence syntax the attributive functions do appear mysteriously, though in connection to . . . whatever. Sorry about this, dear readers, but there is absolutely no logic in those books; therefore, it is impossible to even describe what they strive to explain in there.

Many morphologic sentence elements work similar to the manner in which adjectives do, and they are all grouped, syntactically, into the attributes category. Therefore, the attribute can be:
1. a qualifying adjective
2. a determining adjective
3. an article
4. a numeral
5. a ger
und or participle verb
6. a noun working as an equivalent-adjective
7. a noun in genitive case
8. an infinitive verb
9. an adverb
10. an apposition
11. any phrase/expression/clause working as an equivalent-attribute

Fragment from LSEG: subcategories of attributes.
LSEG: subcategories of attributes

Definition (fragment from LSEG Definition S1.6)
"Object" is syntactical element which suffers, directly or indirectly, the action/state expressed by the predicate. The most common form of syntactical object is ...

There are three categories of syntactic objects:
1. direct object
2. indirect object
3. prepositional object

Direct object is used in morphology to define transitive verbs: a verb is transitive if it is accompanied by a direct object. Direct object may be a noun or an equivalent-noun, a pronoun, an adjective, a numeral, and an infinitive, gerund, or participle verb. Generally, direct object is positioned right after the verb it determines, but there are instances when it is separated.

Indirect object suffers the action of the predicate indirectly, since it is the target/address of predicate's action. Indirect object is in dative case, marked by the preposition "to" or "for" ahead expressed either explicitly or implicitly. Indirect object may be a noun, pronoun, adjective, numeral, past participle verb working as noun, etc. Regarding the form it takes, indirect object can be:
1. indirect object without preposition
2. indirect object with preposition

It is fairly difficult to identify prepositional object because it is easily confused for prepositional adverbial. Generally, prepositional object presents details about how is the action/state of the verb performed from a different perspective than prepositional adverbial does. Prepositional objects are in accusative case; indirect objects are in dative case; direct objects are in accusative case.

In many grammar books syntactical objects are just of "direct" and "prepositional" type: "indirect objects" do not exist. In other books, all objects are named bluntly "prepositional", while the preposition is considered to be part of the predicate-verb. Those are just terrible grammatical errors.

Fragment from LSEG: positioning object.
LSEG: positioning direct object

Definition (fragment from LSEG Definition S1.9)
“Adverbial” is syntactical element used to present particular circumstances in which
the action/state expressed by the predicate-verb is executed. In most instances,
syntactical adverbial is expressed by a morphologic adverb/equivalent-adverb in
accusative case . . ."

Adverbials describe the circumstances (of the environment) in which the action of the predicate-verb is performed, or they present particular, characteristic features. In most instances the adverbial is a morphologic adverb, but it can also be any sentence element or phrase working as adverb.

Note that not all adverbs have an adverbial correspondent, and not all adverbials reflect all categories/subcategories of adverbs.

Fragment from LSEG: adverbials of purpose/result.
LSEG: adverbials of purpose/result.


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