ENGLISH GRAMMAR NOTES - CONJUNCTIONS
 
 

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GRAMMAR NOTES: CONJUNCTIONS


LSEG: unbiased morphologic elementsRED LEAVES L



ATTENTION
The manner in which conjunctions are presented “grammatically” today (in 2014) throughout the Internet, is . . . bizarre, if not straightforward vulgar. Many “linguist scientists” advise their students/readers to use the acronym “FANBOYS” in order to remember working with conjunctions! However, that incredibly disgusting stupidity is just some sick poetical fantasy; it has nothing to do with Grammar.

LSEG: types of conjunctions


“Conjunctions” have a complex binding functionality: conjunctions tie together two similar morphologic/syntactic elements, or they link two clauses in a complex sentence. Conjunction is the only morphologic element that manages to preserve its functionality throughout all three (different) grammatical domains: Morphology, Sentence Syntax, and Complex Sentence Syntax. Conjunctions are very simple in form, except their functionality is among the most complex in English grammar [same as in any other language].

LSEG4: SUBCATEGORIES OF CONJUNCTIONS



Relational associations set by conjunctions correspond (roughly) to relational associations developed between the clauses of a complex sentence. Although the diagram on left could seem rather complicated, please note that conjunctional functionality is thoroughly explained in Complex Sentence Syntax, part four in LSEG4.

The first major division of conjunctions is in:
     A. coordinating
     B. subordinating


Each major subcategory above is further sub-divided into many, particularly important, sub-subcategories.

Coordinating conjunctions are discriminated in:
     A1. copulative/cumulative [particularly important, since they are frequently mistaken];
     A2. disjunctive;
     A3. adversative:
     A4. conclusive;
     A5. explicative.


Subordinating conjunctions are further grouped in:
     B1. adverbial:
           B1.1. of manner;
           B1.2. of place;
           B1.3. of time;
           B1.4. of evolution.

     B2. equivalent:
           B2.1. relative adjectives;
           B2.2. relative pronouns;
           B2.3. relative adverbs.

     B3. non-adverbial:
           B3.1. of subjective clause;
           B3.2. of predicative clause;
           B3.3. of objective clause;
           B3.4. of attributive clause.

 

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LSEG4: SUBCATEGORIES OF CONJUNCTIONS






Due to their inherent complex functionality, it is very difficult to structure conjunctions appropriately (based on their linking relations). Note that conjunctional functionality works, to its fullest, only in Complex Sentence Syntax: there is the place (in Grammar) where conjunctional functionality starts making some logic sense.


L4EW: FRAGMENT OF AN EXERCISE FROM CHAPTER CONJUNCTIONSRED LEAF L








L4EW: fragment of an exercise from chapter "Conjunctions".


LSEG 4TH EDITION
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A complete grammatical reference, very easy to learn: Logically Structured English Grammar 4—as theory plus exercises!

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